NTA的NEET 2021教学大纲,考试模式& Latest Updates!

NTA的NEET 2021教学大纲: Check latest NEET 2020 Syllabus 和exam pattern. Here you will also get important links to access study material.

创建于:2020年12月12日10:47 IST
修改日期:2020年12月14日10:47 IST
NEET 2021教学大纲
NEET 2021教学大纲

NTA的NEET 2021教学大纲: 最新的NEET 2021教学大纲(按部分划分)&考试模式在这里可用。您也可以下载PDF格式的课程提纲。本文末尾提供了下载NEET 2021教学大纲(PDF)的链接。在这里,我们还提供了准备NEET 2021的部分重要书籍的详细信息。

学科

问题数

分数

种类of Questions

持续时间

物理

45

180

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with four options 和single correct answer/best option

下午02:00到下午05:00

化学

45

180

生物学(动物学)& Botany)

90

360

180个问题

720分

 

3小时

NEET第32章&按主题主题解决的论文化学(2019-1988):检查详细信息!

NEET 2021分科课程提纲:物理

十一年级物理课程

十二级物理课程

 

序号

主题

序号

主题

1

Physical world 和measurement

1

静电学

2

运动学

2

电流电力

3

运动亿宝娱乐登录地址

3

Magnetic Effects of Current 和Magnetism

4

Work, Energy 和Power

4

Electromagnetic Induction 和Alternating Currents

5

Motion of System of Particles 和Rigid Body

5

电磁波

6

引力

6

光学

7

散装物料的性质

7

Dual Nature of Matter 和Radiation

8

热力学

8

Atoms 和Nuclei

9

Behaviour of Perfect Gas 和Kinetic Theory

9

电子设备

10

Oscillations 和Waves

 

 

物理学科最佳书籍

NCERT示例问题&12级物理解决方案:下载PDF  

NCERT第12类物理课本:下载解决方案 

NCERT示例问题for Class 11 物理: Download PDF   

NCERT 11级物理课本:下载PDF

HC Verma的物理学概念(第1部分)& 2): Check Now! 

在您的FINGERTIPS上针对NEET-AIIMS的客观NCERT-物理

第11类课程大纲的内容:物理

单元一: Physical World 和Measurement
• 物理: Scope 和excitement; 性质of 物理laws; 物理, technology 和society.
• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental 和derived units. Length, mass 和time measurements; accuracy 和precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
• Dimensions of 物理quantities, dimensional analysis 和its applications.
第二单元: 运动学
• Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, 速度和velocity. Uniform 和 non-uniform motion,  average  speed  and  instantaneous  velocity.  Uniformly  accelerated motion, velocity-time 和 位置时间图,用于 匀速加速运动(图形处理)。
• Elementary concepts of differentiation 和integration for describing motion. Scalar 和vector quantities: Position 和displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors 和notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition 和subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
•单位向量。平面矩形分量中矢量的分辨率。
• Scalar 和Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity 和uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
第三单元: 运动亿宝娱乐登录地址
• Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first 法of motion; momentum 和Newton’s second 法of motion; impulse; Newton’s third 法of motion. Law of 保护of linear momentum 和its applications.
• 平衡 of concurrent forces. Static 和Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
•匀速圆周运动的动力学。向心力,圆周运动的示例(水平圆周道路上的车辆,倾斜道路上的车辆)。
第四单元: Work, Energy 和Power
• Work done by a constant force 和variable force; kinetic 能源,work-energy theorem, power.
•概念 of  potential  energy,  potential  energy  of  a  spring,  保守势力; conservation  of mechanical 能源(kinetic 和potential energies); non保守势力;motion in a vertical circle, elastic 和inelastic collisions in one 和two dimensions.
第五单元: Motion of System of Particles 和Rigid Body
• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum 保护和centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
• Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, 保护of angular momentum with some examples.
• 平衡 of rigid 身体,rigid body rotation 和equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear 和rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of  gyration. Values of M.I. for simple 几何objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel 和perpendicular axes theorems 和their applications.
第六单元: 引力
• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal 法of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity 和its 变异with altitude 和depth.
• 引力al 潜在energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite.
对地静止卫星。
第七单元: 散装物料的性质
•弹性行为,应力-应变关系。胡克亿宝娱乐登录地址,杨氏模量,体积 modulus, shear,
刚性模量,泊松比;弹性能。
• Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline 和turbulent flow. Critical
velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem 和its applications.
• Surface 能源和surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension 主意to drops, bubbles 和capillary rise.
• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, 和gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific 热capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
• 热transfer- conduction 和thermal conductivity, convection 和radiation. Qualitative 主意of
Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, 和Green House effect.
• Newton’s 法of cooling 和Stefan’s law.
第八单元: 热力学
• Thermal equilibrium 和definition of temperature (zeroth 法of 热力学). Heat, work 和internal energy. First 法of thermodynamics. Isothermal 和adiabatic processes.
•第二 law  of  the  thermodynamics:  Reversible  and  irreversible  processes.  Heat  engines  and refrigerators.
第九单元: Behaviour of Perfect Gas 和Kinetic Theory
•理想气体的状态方程,在压缩气体时完成的工作。
• Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic 能源和temperature; degrees of freedom, 法of equipartition of 能源(statement only) 和application to 具体热capacities of gases; concept of mean 自由path.
X单元: Oscillations 和Waves
• Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) 和its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force 和force constant; 能源in SHM –Kinetic 和potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced 和damped oscillations (定性ideas 只要),resonance.
• Wave motion. Longitudinal 和transverse waves, 速度of 波motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing 波浪in strings 和organ pipes, fundamental mode 和harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
物理:课程提纲十二
单元一: 静电学
• Electric charges 和their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle 和continuous charge distribution.
•电场,点电荷产生的电场,电场线;电偶极子,由于偶极子产生的电场;在均匀电场中偶极子上的转矩。
• Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem 和its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet 和uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside 和outside)
• Electric potential, 潜在difference, electric 潜在due to a point charge, a dipole 和system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical 潜在能源of a system of two point charges 和of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
• Conductors 和insulators, 自由charges 和bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics 和electric polarization, capacitors 和capacitance, combination of capacitors in series 和in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with 和without dielectric medium between 的plates, 能源stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
第二单元: 电流电力
• Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity 和mobility, 和their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I 特点(liner 和non- linear), electrical 能源和power, electrical resistivity 和conductivity.
• Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series 和parallel combinations of resistors;
电阻的温度依赖性。
• Internal resistance of a cell, 潜在difference 和emf of a cell, co mbination of cells in series 和in parallel.
• Kirchhoff’s laws 和simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
• Potentiometer-principle 和applications to measure 潜在difference, 和for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
第三单元: Magnetic Effects of Current 和Magnetism
• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart 法和its  适用于载流圆环。
• Ampere’s 法和its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight 和toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic 和electric fields. Cyclotron.
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity 和conversion to ammeter 和voltmeter.
• Current loop as a magnetic dipole 和its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis 和perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field 和magnetic elements.
•顺磁性,反磁性和铁磁性物质,并带有示例。
•电磁和factors affecting 其strengths. Permanent magnets.
第四单元: Electromagnetic Induction 和Alternating Currents
•Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf 和current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self 和mutual inductance.
• Alternating currents, peak 和rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance 和impedance; LC oscillations (定性treatment 只要),LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
• AC generator 和transformer.
第五单元: 电磁波
•需要位移电流。
•电磁 waves  and  their  characteristics  (qualitative  ideas  only).  Transverse  nature  电磁波。
•电磁频谱(无线电波,微波,红外线,可见光,紫外线,X射线,伽马射线),包括有关其用途的基本事实。
第六单元: 光学
• Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection 和its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens 和a mirror. Refraction 和dispersion of light through a prism.
• Scattering of light- blue colour of 的sky 和reddish appearance of 的sun at sunrise 和sunset.
• Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation 和accommodation, correction of eye defects
(myopia 和hypermetropia) using lenses.
• Microscopes 和astronomical telescopes (reflecting 和refracting) 和their magnifying powers.
• Wave optics: Wavefront 和Huygens’ principle, reflection 和refraction of plane 波at a plane surface using wavefronts.
• Proof of laws of reflection 和refraction using Huygens’ principle.
• Interference, Young’s double hole experiment 和expression for fringe width, coherent sources 和sustained interference of light.
•由于单个狭缝而引起的衍射,中心最大宽度。
• Resolving power of microscopes 和astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light 和Polaroids.
第七单元: Dual Nature of Matter 和Radiation
• Photoelectric effect, Hertz 和Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle 性质of light.
•事项 waves-  wave  nature  of  particles,  de  Broglie  relation.  Davisson-Germer  实验(应省略实验细节;仅应解释结论)。
第八单元: Atoms 和Nuclei
•α粒子散射实验;卢瑟福的原子模型;波尔模型 energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition 和size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
• Radioactivity- alpha, beta 和gamma particles/ rays 和their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding 能源per nucleon 和its 变异with mass number, nuclear 裂变和fusion.
第九单元: 电子设备
•能源 bands  in  solids  (qualitative  ideas  only),  conductors,  insulators  and  半导体;半导体二极管 I-V  characteristics  in  forward  and  reverse  bias,  diode  as  a  rectifier;  I-V 特点of LED, photodiode, solar cell, 和Zener diode; Zener 二极管as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, 特点of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) 和oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND 和NOR). Transistor as a switch.

NEET 2021分节课程大纲:化学

第十一次化学教学大纲

第十二类化学教学大纲

序号

主题

序号

主题

1

化学的一些基本概念

1

固体状态

2

原子的结构

2

解决方案

3

Classification of Elements 和Periodicity in

物产

3

电化学

4

Chemical Bonding 和Molecular Structure

4

化学动力学

5

States of Matter: Gases 和Liquids

5

表面化学

6

热力学

6

General Principles 和Processes of

元素隔离

7

平衡

7

- 块元素

8

氧化还原反应

8

d f 块元素

9

9

配位化合物

10

s-Block Element (Alkali 和Alkaline earth

金属)

10

Haloalkanes 和Haloarenes

11

一些p块元素

11

Alcohols, Phenols 和Ethers

 

12

有机化学-一些基本原理

和Techniques

12

Aldehydes, Ketones 和Carboxylic Acids

13

碳氢化合物

13

含有机化合物

14

环境化学

14

生物分子

 

 

15

聚合物

 

 

16

日常生活中的化学

化学科目的最佳书籍

共同

NCERT第12类化学课本:下载解决方案 

NCERT示例问题for Class 12 化学: Download 解决方案  

NCERT第11类化学课本:下载解决方案  

NCERT示例问题for Class 11 化学: Download 解决方案  

轻松掌握客观NCERT-化学

有机化学 

M S Chauhan撰写的JEE有机化学高级问题

无机化学:

杰无机化学中的问题&V. K. JAISWAL进阶 

物理化学

物理化学中的问题-Narendra Awasthi

化学:XI类提纲的内容
单元一: 化学的一些基本概念
• General Introduction: Important 和scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms 和molecules.
• Atomic 和molecular masses. Mole concept 和molar mass; percentage composition 和empirical 和molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry 和calculations based on stoichiometry.
第二单元: 原子的结构
• Atomic number, isotopes 和isobars. Concept of shells 和subshells, dual 性质of matter 和light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p 和d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles 和Hund’s rule, 电子configuration of atoms, stability of half filled 和completely
填充轨道。
第三单元: Classification of Elements 和Periodicity in 物产
• Modern periodic 法和long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization 焓electron gain 焓electrone gativity, valence.
第四单元: Chemical Bonding 和Molecular Structure
• Valence electrons, ionic bond, 共价bond, 键parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of 共价bond, valence 键theory, 谐振,geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p 和d orbitals 和shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (定性idea 只要)。Hydrogen bond.
第五单元: States of Matter: Gases 和Liquids
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting 和boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating 的concept of 的molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic 能源和molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity 和surface tension (定性idea only, no mathematical derivations).
第六单元: Thermodynamics
•第一 law  of  内部热力学 energy  and  enthalpy,  heat  capacity  and  specific  heat, measurement of U 和H, Hess’s 法of constant 热summation, enthalpy of : 键dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution 和dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second 法of thermodynamics, Gibbs 能源change for spontaneous 和non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium 和spontaneity.
• Third 法of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
第七单元: 平衡
• 平衡 in 物理和chemical processes, dynamic 性质of equilibrium, 法of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of  acids  and  bases,  strong  and  weak  电解质度 电离,多元酸的电离,酸强度,pH值的概念,盐的水解(基本概念),缓冲溶液,亨德森方程,溶解度乘积,常见离子效应(带有说明性示例)。
第八单元: 氧化还原反应
• Concept of oxidation 和oxidation 和reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss 和gain of electron 和change in oxidation numbers.
第九单元:
• ccurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties 和uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, 共价和interstitial; 物理和chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation,
reactions, uses 和structure;
X单元: s-Block Elements (Alkali 和Alkaline earth 金属)
• Group I 和group 2 elements:
• General 介绍,电子configuration, 发生,anomalous properties of 的first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in 的变异of properties (such as ionization 焓atomic 和ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen 和halogens; uses.
• Preparation 和Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide 和sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium 和potassium.
• Industrial use of lime 和limestone, biological importance of Mg 和Ca.
第十一单元: 一些p块元素
•p块元素概述。
•第13组元素:概述, electronic  configuration,  occurrence,  variation  of 属性oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of 的group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with 酸和alkalies.
•常规14个元素:常规 introduction,  electronic  configuration,  occurrence,  variation  of 属性oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, 物理和chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon 和a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates 和zeolites, 其uses.
第十二单元: 有机化学-一些基本原理 和Techniques
• General 介绍,methods of purification qualitative 和quantitative analysis, 分类and
联合会nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a 共价bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance 和hyper conjugation.
•均溶的 and  heterolytic  fission  of  a  covalent  bond:  free  radials,  carbocations,  carbanions;
electrophiles 和nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
第十三单元: 碳氢化合物
•烷烃- Nomenclature,  isomerism,  conformations  (ethane  only),  physical  properties,  chemical reactions including 自由radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion 和pyrolysis.
•烷烃命名法, structure  of   double  bond  (ethene),  geometrical  isomerism,  物理性质,方法 制备:化学反应:加成 hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition 和peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
•炔烃命名法​​, structure   of   triple   键  (ethyne),   物理  属性  methods   of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides 和water.
•芳香的 hydrocarbons-  Introduction,  IUPAC  nomenclature;  Benzene;  resonance,  aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation 和acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity 和toxicity.
第十四单元: 环境化学
• Environmental pollution: Air, water 和soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, 重大的atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone 和its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect 和global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
化学:课程提纲十二的内容
单元一: 固体状态
• Classification of 固体based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic 共价和metallic solids, amorphous 和crystalline 固体(elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional 和three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical 和magnetic 属性Band theory of metals, 指挥,semiconductors 和insulators.
第二单元: 解决方案
• 种类of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of 固体in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
第三单元: 电化学
• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, 具体和molar conductivity 变异of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis 和Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells 和Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs 能源change 和EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
第四单元: 化学动力学
• Rate of a reaction (average 和instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order 和molecularity of a reaction; rate 法和specific rate constant, integrated rate equations 和half life (only for zero 和first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation 能源,Arrhenious equation.
第五单元: 表面化学
• Adsorption-physisorption 和chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous 和heterogeneous, activity 和selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids 和suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular 和macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
第六单元: General Principles 和Processes of 元素隔离
• Principles 和methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method 和refining; occurrence 和principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc 和iron.
第七单元: - 块元素
• Group 15 elements: General 介绍,电子configuration, 发生,oxidation states, trends in 物理和chemical properties; preparation 和properties of ammonia 和nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation 和properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) 和oxoacids (elementary idea only).
• Group 16 elements: General 介绍,电子configuration, oxidation states, 发生,trends in 物理和chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties 和uses; 分类of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties 和uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties 和uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General 介绍,电子configuration, oxidation states, 发生,trends in 物理和chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties 和uses of chlorine 和hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General 介绍,电子configuration, 发生,trends in 物理和chemical 属性uses.
第八单元: d 和f 块元素
• General 介绍,电子configuration, 特点of transition metals, general trends in properties of 的first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization 焓oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic 属性interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation 和properties of K2Cr2O7 和KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- 电子configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, 和lanthanoid contraction 和its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic 组态,oxidation states 和comparison with lanthanoids.
第九单元: 配位化合物
• Coordination compounds: 介绍,ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties 和shapes, 联合会nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural 和stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
X单元: Haloalkanes 和Haloarenes
• Haloalkanes: 命名法nature of C –X bond, 物理和chemical 属性mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
•卤代芳烃:C-X键的性质,取代反应(卤素对单取代化合物的定向影响)。
• Uses 和environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
第十一单元: Alcohols, Phenols 和Ethers
• Alcohols: 命名法methods of preparation, 物理和chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary 和tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol 和ethanol.
• Phenols: 命名法methods of preparation, 物理和chemical 属性acidic 性质of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
• Ethers: 命名法methods of preparation, 物理和chemical properties uses.
第十二单元: Aldehydes, Ketones 和Carboxylic Acids
• Aldehydes 和Ketones: 命名法nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, 物理和chemical properties; 和mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: 命名法acidic nature, methods of preparation, 物理和chemical properties; uses.
第十三单元: 含氮有机化合物
• Amines: 命名法classification, structure, methods of preparation, 物理和chemical 属性uses, identification of primary secondary 和tertiary amines.
• Cyanides 和Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions 和importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
第十四单元: 生物分子
•碳水化合物-分类 (aldoses  and  ketoses),  单糖(葡萄糖 and  fructose),  D.L. 组态,oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary 结构体和quaternary 结构体(定性idea 只要),denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
•激素-基本概念(不包括结构)。
• Vitamins- Classification 和function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA 和RNA
第十五部: 聚合物
• Classification- Natural 和synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition 和condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural 和synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable 和non-biodegradable polymers.
第十六单元: 日常生活中的化学
•药品中的化学药品-镇痛药,镇定剂,防腐剂,消毒剂,抗微生物剂,抗生育药,抗生素,抗酸剂,抗组胺药。
•食品防腐剂中的化学物质,人造甜味剂,抗氧化剂的基本概念。
• Cleansing agents- soaps 和detergents, cleansing action.

NEET 2021分段教学大纲:生物学

第十一次生物课程

第十二类生物课程

序号

主题

序号

主题

1

生活世界的多样性

1

再生产

2

动物和动物的结构组织

植物

2

Genetics 和Evolution

3

Cell Structure 和Function

3

Biology 和Human Welfare

4

植物生理学

4

Biotechnology 和Its Applications

5

人类生理学

5

Ecology 和environment

生物学准备最佳书籍:

NCERT示例问题for Class 12 Biology: Download 解决方案 

NCERT第12类生物学:下载解决方案

NCERT示例:CBSE 11类生物学-所有章节:下载PDF

适用于11类生物学的NCERT解决方案:下载PDF

Trueman的NEET指南生物学

生物学:XI类教学大纲的内容
单元一: 生活世界的多样性
•生活是什么? ;生物多样性;需要分类;生活的三个领域;分类& Systematics; Concept of species 和taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial 命名法Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
• Five kingdom classification; salient 特征和classification of Monera; Protista 和Fungi 进入major groups; Lichens; Viruses 和Viroids.
•突出 features  and  classification  of  plants  into  major  藻类,苔藓植物, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms 和Angiosperms (three to five salient 和distinguishing 特征和at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms 分类up to class, characteristic 特征和examples).
•突出features 和classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level 和chordate up to classes level (three to five salient 特征和at least two examples).
第二单元: Structural Organisation in Animals 和Plants
• Morphology 和modifications; Tissues; Anatomy 和functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose 和recemose, flower, fruit 和seed (To be dealt along with 的relevant practical of 的Practical Syllabus).
• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy 和functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous 和reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
第三单元: Cell Structure 和Function
• Cell theory 和cell as 的basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic 和eukaryotic cell; Plant cell 和animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure 和function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,  Golgi  bodies,  lysosomes,  vacuoles;  mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra 结构体和function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
• Chemical constituents of living cells: 生物分子-structure 和function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, 属性enzyme action.
• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis 和their significance.
第四单元: 植物生理学
• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases 和nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure 和guttation; Transpiration-Opening 和closing of stomata; Uptake 和translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro 和micronutrients 和their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; 氮 metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
•光合作用:光合作用是自养营养的一种手段;发生光合作用;
pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical 和biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis;   Cyclic   和  non   cyclic   和 光磷酸化; Chemiosmotic   hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 和C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle 和electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
• Plant growth 和development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth 和plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation 和redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
第五单元: 人类生理学
• Digestion 和 absorption; Alimentary canal 和 消化腺的角色 digestive enzymes 和gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption 和assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates 和fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates 和fats; Egestion; Nutritional 和digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
• Breathing 和Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing 和its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases 和regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
• Body fluids 和circulation: Composition of blood, 血液groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph 和its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of 人的heart 和blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
• Excretory products 和their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure 和fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH 和Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis 和artificial kidney.
•运动 and  Movement:  Types  of  movement-  ciliary,  fiagellar,  muscular;  Skeletal  muscle- contractile proteins 和muscle contraction; 骨骼的system 和its functions (To be dealt with 的relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular 和skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.•   Neural control 和coordination: Neuron 和nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system 和visceral nervous system; Generation 和conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary 结构体和function of eye 和ear.
• Chemical coordination 和regulation: Endocrine glands 和hormones; Human endocrine system- Hypothalamus, Pituitary,  Pineal,  Thyroid,  甲状旁腺,肾上腺, Pancreas,  Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers 和regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity 和related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases 和disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
生物学:课程提纲十二的内容

单元一: 再生产
• 再生产 in organisms: 再生产, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual 和sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male 和female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies 和examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm 和embryo, Development of seed 和formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed 和fruit formation.
• Human 再生产: Male 和female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis 和ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy 和placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health 和prevention of sexually transmitted 疾病(STD); Birth control-Need 和Methods, Contraception 和Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility 和assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
第二单元: Genetics 和Evolution
• Heredity 和variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple  alleles  and  Inheritance of  blood  groups,  多效性基本思想 of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes 和genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage 和crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s 和Klinefelter’s syndromes.
• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material 和DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA 和RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression 和regulation- Lac Operon; Genome 和human genome project; DNA finger printing.
• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution 和evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology 和molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation 和Recombination) 和Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow 和genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
第三单元: Biology 和Human Welfare
•健康 and  Disease;  病原体寄生虫 causing  human  diseases  (Malaria,  Filariasis,  Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV 和AIDS; Adolescence, drug 和alcohol abuse.
• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture 和Animal husbandry.
• Microbes in 人的welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, 能源generation 和as biocontrol agents 和biofertilizers.
第四单元: Biotechnology 和Its Applications
• Principles 和process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
• Application of Biotechnology in health 和agriculture: Human insulin 和vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy 和patents.
第五单元: Ecology 和environment
• Organisms 和environment: Habitat 和niche; Population 和ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate 和death rate, age distribution.
• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity 和decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon 和phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services- Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
• Biodiversity 和its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of  Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks 和sanctuaries.
• Environmental issues: Air pollution 和its control; Water pollution 和its control; Agrochemicals 和their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect 和global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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